sa ajims wikipedia

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sexual contacts between people of the opposite sex, United States Preventive Services Task Force, WHO disease staging system for HIV infection and disease, CDC classification system for HIV infection, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors, Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS, an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases, "HIV Classification: CDC and WHO Staging Systems | AIDS Education and Training Centers National Coordinating Resource Center (AETC NCRC)", "Wear your red ribbon this World AIDS Day | UNAIDS", "Global HIV & AIDS statistics — 2020 fact sheet", "The first postmodern pandemic: 25 years of HIV/AIDS", "A reflection on HIV/AIDS research after 25 years", "The impact of AIDS on people and societies", "An African Pope Won't Change the Vatican's Views on Condoms and AIDS", "Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa", "Ocular surface squamous neoplasia – Review of etio-pathogenesis and an update on clinico-pathological diagnosis", "Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) among Recipients of Antibody-Positive Blood Donations", "Heterosexual risk of HIV-1 infection per sexual act: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies", "Systematic review of orogenital HIV-1 transmission probabilities", "Risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus with antiretroviral therapy, suppressed viral load and condom use: a systematic review", "HIV is not transmitted under fully suppressive therapy: The Swiss Statement – eight years later", "Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men", "Mucosal HIV transmission and vaccination strategies through oral compared with vaginal and rectal routes", The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, "HIV transmission by organ and tissue transplantation", "Injection drug use, unsafe medical injections, and HIV in Africa: a systematic review", "Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV", "WHO | Mother-to-child transmission of HIV", "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS", International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, "Hybrid spreading mechanisms and T cell activation shape the dynamics of HIV-1 infection", "HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse", "Cell-to-cell spread of HIV permits ongoing replication despite antiretroviral therapy", "The qualitative nature of the primary immune response to HIV infection is a prognosticator of disease progression independent of the initial level of plasma viremia", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, "Primary HIV-1 infection is associated with preferential depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes from effector sites in the gastrointestinal tract", "CD4+ T cell depletion during all stages of HIV disease occurs predominantly in the gastrointestinal tract", "CCR5 monoclonal antibodies for HIV-1 therapy", "Immune activation and inflammation in HIV-1 infection: causes and consequences", "Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection", "Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement", "HIV testing for children in resource-limited settings: what are we waiting for? Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting with an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection. [133] Voluntary counseling and testing people for HIV does not affect risky behavior in those who test negative but does increase condom use in those who test positive. [225], South & South East Asia is the second most affected; in 2010 this region contained an estimated 4 million cases or 12% of all people living with HIV resulting in approximately 250,000 deaths. Research has found links between the two, as well as a relationship with drug use. Using USAID's PEPFAR funding, the organisation expanded rapidly and after ten years (2011) had over 125,000 HIV-positive patients in clinical care. [6] The most effective vaccine trial to date, RV 144, was published in 2009; it found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission of roughly 30%, stimulating some hope in the research community of developing a truly effective vaccine. [289] Others may charge the accused under laws enacted before the HIV pandemic. HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research which attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, along with fundamental research about the nature of HIV as an infectious agent, and about AIDS as the disease caused by HIV. [102], Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of infection, especially in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors the majority of the lymphocytes found in the body. The latest HIV data collected at antenatal clinics suggest that HIV infection levels might be levelling off, with HIV prevalence in pregnant women at 30% in 2007, 29% in 2006, and 28% in 2005. [38], The effort to improve treatment of HIV/AIDS was damaged by the attitude of many figures in the government, including President Mbeki. Genetic studies of the virus suggest that the most recent common ancestor of the HIV-1 M group dates back to c. Mercury had also begun to show signs of the virus as early as 1982. They represent approximately 1 in 300 infected persons. Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded reverse transcriptase that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. [27], The initial symptoms are followed by a stage called clinical latency, asymptomatic HIV, or chronic HIV. Data on HIV are from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAids). [245], In 1983, two separate research groups led by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with AIDS, and published their findings in the same issue of the journal Science. [48] These policies led to the deaths of over 300,000 South Africans. [53] The number of health journalists has also declined considerably.[58]. [7] After the diagnosis of AIDS, if treatment is not available, survival ranges between 6 and 19 months. In 1990, the first national antenatal survey to test for HIV found that 0.8% of pregnant women were HIV-positive. [28] Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common cancer, occurring in 10% to 20% of people with HIV. [79] If a woman is untreated, two years of breastfeeding results in an HIV/AIDS risk in her baby of about 17%. [64], Antiretroviral treatment among people with HIV whose CD4 count ≤ 550 cells/µL is a very effective way to prevent HIV infection of their partner (a strategy known as treatment as prevention, or TASP). [57] In the United Kingdom as of 2015[update], there were approximately 101,200 cases which resulted in 594 deaths. ", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, "The role of micronutrients in the diet of HIV-1-infected individuals", "Efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation for adults, children and pregnant women with HIV infection: systematic review", "Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection", "Complementary and alternative medicine use among HIV-positive people: research synthesis and implications for HIV care", "Progression and mortality of untreated HIV-positive individuals living in resource-limited settings: update of literature review and evidence synthesis", "Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a collaborative analysis of 14 cohort studies", "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis", "The C terminus of HIV-1 Tat modulates the extent of CD178-mediated apoptosis of T cells", "Cognitive neuropsychology of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders", "Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies – the influence of antiviral therapy on pathogenesis and management", "The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic", "Fact sheet – Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic | UNAIDS", "UNAIDS reports a 52% reduction in new HIV infections among children and a combined 33% reduction among adults and children since 2001", New HIV infections among children have been reduced by 50% or more in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa, "Country Comparison :: HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate", "Pneumocystis pneumonia – Los Angeles. [19], HIV/AIDS has had a large impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination. [27] In the absence of specific treatment, around half of people infected with HIV develop AIDS within ten years. [153][154], There is currently no cure, nor an effective HIV vaccine. [197] Prognosis varies between people, and both the CD4 count and viral load are useful for predicted outcomes. [80], HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, during delivery, or through breast milk, resulting in the baby also contracting HIV. [144] As of 2013[update], the prevention regimen recommended in the United States consists of three medications—tenofovir, emtricitabine and raltegravir—as this may reduce the risk further. He said: In 2001 the government appointed a panel of scientists, including a number of AIDS denialists, to report back on the issue. [4] These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Out of 1,173 whites, 0.6% had HIV. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility from the family to the government in caring for these orphans. [36][233] The initial cases were a cluster of injecting drug users and gay men with no known cause of impaired immunity who showed symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare opportunistic infection that was known to occur in people with very compromised immune systems. [159][165] The effectiveness of treatment depends to a large part on compliance. This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 16:55. [23], In 1983, AIDS was diagnosed for the first time in two patients in South Africa. [22] It has attracted international medical and political attention as well as large-scale funding since it was identified in the 1980s. 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