Age- and gender-adjusted calcium intake from drinking water was inversely associated with hypertension death risk. This potential is calculated with 2010 global mortality figures combined with a recent quantification of water-magnesium’s inverse association with heart disease and stroke mortality. Yes, they are! Spigot located at Adobe Springs, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, at 19,000 Del Puerto per liter. Sources of Hardness Minerals in Drinking Water; Water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily. Several studies have reported that calcium and magnesium in drinking water have a dose-dependent protective effect when it comes to cardiovascular disease. Magnesium intake from drinking water was significantly inversely associated with hypertension death risk in a model controlling for age and gender. There are products designed to “fortify” such deionized or distilled water with magnesium … No municipalities were excluded because of changes in water quality (eg, the use of water softeners) during the past few decades. In the analysis, the subjects were divided into quintiles according to the levels of calcium and magnesium in their drinking water. The reason for not finding a protective effect of calcium on risk of hypertension death may be the fact that calcium and magnesium levels in the drinking water are highly correlated (correlation coefficient, 0.65). Author information: (1)Division of Environmental and Occupational Disease Control, California Department of Health Services, Emeryville, USA. Of the 2336 cases, 1500 were men and 836 were women. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that there may be a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water on the risk of hypertension. Data on calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan have been obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. 7.McCarron D, Morris C, Holly Jet al. High doses of magnesium can cause health concerns and lead to serious side effects. Location: Central California, at 19,000 Del Puerto Canyon Road, There is unfortunately no information available on these variables for individual study subjects and they could not be adjusted for directly in the analysis. Published in 2009. In the general population, the major proportion of magnesium intake is through diet, and to a lesser extent via drinking water (in Sweden, generally <5% is from drinking water).21 There is no available data for assessing the percentage that drinking water contributes to the total magnesium intake in the present study. Despite their inherent limitations31 studies on the ecologic correlation between mortality and environmental exposures have been used widely to generate or discredit epidemiologic hypotheses. the contribution of drinking water to calcium and magnesium intake; health significance of calcium and magnesium; role of drinking-water in relation to bone metabolism; epidemiological studies and the association of cardiovascular disease risks with water hardness and magnesium in particular; water production, technical issues and economics. They also conduct routine water analyses to assess the suitability of water for drinking from both the sources and at various points in the distribution system. In the first and second editions, these constituted Volume 2 of the GDWQ. HTML, Full text: Rolling Revision of the WHO guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. may not be sold. This figure is only 81.9% of the recommended daily intake.20 The major portion of magnesium intake is through diet, and to a lesser extent by drinking water.21 There are no available data for assessing the percentage contribution of drinking water to the total magnesium intake in Taiwan. Four finished water samples, one for each season, were collected from each waterworks. Cases had a higher rate (43.6%) of living in metropolitan municipalities than the controls (37.9%) (Table 1). Although causes of death may be misdiagnosed or misclassified, the problem has been minimized through the improvement in the verification and classification of causes of death in Taiwan since 1972. These minerals aid the human body in one way or the other. Furthermore, Taiwan is a small island with a convenient communication network, and the accessibility of medical service facilities is comparable among study municipalities. Water described as "hard" is high in dissolved minerals, specifically calcium and magnesium. Guidelines for magnesium content in drinking water are unlikely, because negative human and animal health effects are not expected. ORs and their 95% CIs were calculated using the group with the lowest exposure as the reference group.30 Values of P < .05 were considered statistically significant. This inverse association was not statistically significant except for the comparison involving the group whose calcium exposure was in the second highest quintile with the group with the lowest exposure. This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. In Taiwan, the mean daily intake of dietary calcium is 507 mg. Taichung, Taiwan Water Supply Corporation, Relationship between water hardness and coronary mortality in Taiwan, Statistical Methods in Cancer Research: The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Uses of ecologic analysis in epidemiological research, Misclassification and the design of environmental studies, The effect of migration on comparison of disease rates in geographic studies in the United States, Changes in the mineral composition of food as a result of cooking in hard and soft waters, Possible role of water structure in biological magnesium systems, Dahl's hypothesis that a saluretic substance may be responsible for a sustained rise in arterial pressure: its possible role in essential hypertension, Clinical correlates of the molecular and cellular actions of magnesium on the cardiovascular system, Magnesium deficiency and hypertension-correlation between magnesium deficient diets and microcirculatory changes in situ, Observational studies of salt and blood pressure, An overview of randomized trials of sodium reduction and blood pressure, Does potassium supplementation lower blood pressure? Iron and manganese in drinking water are not considered health hazards. Also all the subjects used for the present study were at least 50 years old, and it is assumed that the elderly are more likely to remain in the same residence and, therefore, that most of their lifetime was spent at the address listed on the death certificate. Of all the cardiovascular risk factors, magnesium now takes first place as judged by the accumulation of epidemiological, pathophysiological, clinical and experimental data, both pharmacological and therapeutic. Also, there is substantial geographic variation in hypertension mortality within the country. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hypertension death by calcium levels in drinking water, 1990–1994. Taiwan is divided into 361 administrative districts, which will be referred to in this report as municipalities. loading. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. Tastes great! Drinking water comes with a variety of mineral contaminants. These can include calcium, magnesium, manganese, and so on. Free water Controls (n = 2336) had a mean calcium exposure of 34.8 mg/L (SD = 19.5). The number of visitors to this page beginning September 29, 1995 is: Call for papers--previously published or original, Program Announcement, April 24, 2010, The OR in relation to magnesium levels in drinking water are shown in Table 3. The WHO concluded that the magnesium in drinking water is the mineral in drinking water that’s likely to have the most beneficial effect on heart health. That is, people who drink water that is deficient in magnesium and calcium generally appear more susceptible to this disease. Magnesium links! Consumers can take FREE magnesium rich water at the Free supported the hypothesis that extra magnesium and/or calcium in drinking-water can contribute to reduced cardiovascular disease and other health benefits in populations. It was believed that the hardness (calcium and magnesium) levels in drinking water have remained reasonably stable. The waterworks in each municipality received a questionnaire requesting information on whether any changes had occurred in the water supply or the treatment of the water during the past 20 years. The deaths excluded were those caused by hypertensive disease (ICD codes 401–405), ischemic heart disease (ICD codes 410 to 414), diseases of pulmonary circulation (ICD codes 415 to 417), other forms of heart disease (ICD codes 420 to 429), cerebrovascular disease (ICD codes 430 to 438), and diseases of the arteries, arterioles, and capillaries (ICD codes 440 to 448). By Joseph Cotruvo, PhD, President, Joseph Cotruvo & Associates LLC, Washington, DC USA. Magnesium in water appears as hydrated ions, which are more easily absorbed than magnesium in food.22,35 The contribution of water magnesium among persons who drink water with high magnesium levels could thus be crucial in the prevention of magnesium deficiency. Anaheim Convention Center, Send Email to The Magnesium Online Library, Pages 440 through 447 of the Report of the Safe Drinking Water Committee, The High Heart Health Value of Drinking-Water Magnesium, Head Injuries, Central Nervous System Injuries. This elimination of unsuitable municipalities left 322 municipalities for the analysis. Genes, genetic polymorphism, diet, soluble mediators, and their role in the pathobiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, Masked Nocturnal Hypertension:A Complex Phenomenon to Detect in Clinical Practice, SARS-COV-2 RECEPTOR ACE2 GENE is associated with hypertension and SEVERity of COVID 19: interaction with sex, obesity and SMOKING, High systolic blood pressure at hospital admission is an important risk factor in models predicting outcome of COVID-19 patients, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0895-7061(99)00065-5, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Changes in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet magnesium levels in normotensive and hypertensive obese subjects during oral glucose tolerance test, Low dietary magnesium is associated with insulin resistance in a sample of young, nondiabetic black Americans, Prevalence of Prehypertension in Mexico and Its Association With Hypomagnesemia. 1997;19(2):258-72. Box 1417 Many studies have demonstrated a negative association between blood pressure and calcium and magnesium levels. 200,000,000 died from wars. For a reader-friendly overview of Magnesium, see our consumer fact sheet on Magnesium.. Introduction. The correlation between 1980 and 1990 hardness levels for the study areas was reasonably high (r = 0.85). Interest concerning the role of calcium and magnesium in human cardiovascular disease was stimulated by ecologic studies that demonstrated an inverse association between water hardness and cardiovascular death rates.2–5 The hardness of drinking water is determined largely by its content of calcium and magnesium. Canyon Road, Patterson, CA 95363. Adverse Effects. Environmental problems indirectly caused by magnesium in water are caused by applying softeners. The results of the present study show that there is a significant protective effect of magnesium intake from drinking water for the risk of hypertension. Use the search to find additional articles on your subject. Magnesium levels in drinking water were inversely related to the risk of death from hypertension. The main variables responsible for the sharp difference between the age- and gender-adjusted and full multivariate model were magnesium levels in drinking water and urbanization level of residence. The samples were then analyzed by the waterworks laboratory office using standard methods. Heart Disease. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the highest versus lowest quintiles of exposure was 0.63 (0.47 to 0.84). Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. Table 2 shows the numbers of cases and controls and ORs in relation to calcium levels in their drinking water. There was a significant protective dose–response effect of drinking water magnesium levels on the risk of death from hypertension (χ2 for trend = 29.05, P < .001). 1. : 16.Ma J, Folsom AR, Melnick SLet al. Marx A(1), Neutra RR. The control group consisted of people who died from other causes and the controls were pair matched to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Magnesium in drinking water and ischemic heart disease. An overdose of magnesium through dietary sources is unlikely because the body will eliminate any excess magnesium from food through urine. There is also some evidence that calcium and magnesium in drinking water may help protect against gastric, colon, rectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer, and that magnesium may help protect against esophageal and ovarian cancer. Data collected included the mean levels of calcium and magnesium for the year 1990. Mandibular-related bone metabolism in orchiectomized rats treated with sex hormones. The case group consisted of all eligible hypertension deaths (including deaths caused by essential hypertension (International Classification of Disease, ninth revisions [ICD-9], code 401), hypertensive heart disease (ICD-9 code 402), hypertensive renal disease (ICD-9 code 403), hypertensive heart and renal disease (ICD-9 code 404), and secondary hypertension (ICD-9 code 405)) occurring in people between 50 and 69 years of age. Because it is mandatory to register death certificates at local household registration offices and as the household registration information is verified annually through a door-to-door survey, the death registration in Taiwan is very complete. DONATIONS/BEQUESTS TO SUPPORT THIS LIBRARY AND FURTHER MAGNESIUM RESEARCH WILL BE GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED. It is also unlikely that there would be a direct relationship between other risk factors and the level of magnesium in drinking water. : Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. There is no evidence of adverse health effects specifically attributable to magnesium in drinking water. Many of them cover more than one subject. Thus, the present review attempts to explore the health effects of hard water and its constituents. For controls, the most frequent causes of death were diabetes mellitus (11.0%), liver cancer (9.0%), lung cancer (8.4%), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (8.0%), diseases of the respiratory system (7.9%), and diseases of the genitourinary tract (5.0%). All eligible hypertension deaths (2336 cases) of Taiwan residents from 1990 through 1994 were compared with deaths from other causes (2336 controls), and the levels of calcium and magnesium in the drinking water of these residents were determined. Excluded from the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments. PDF. The mean magnesium concentration in the drinking water was 10.9 mg/L (SD = 7.6) for the cases, and 11.2 mg/L (SD = 7.5) for the controls. The association between hypertension death with calcium and magnesium levels in drinking water was measured using odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from conditional logistic regression models. Not only, calcium and magnesium, but other constituents also affect different health aspects. PDF: The High Heart Health Value of Drinking-Water Magnesium. This may create collinearity in the regression model making it difficult to detect the effect of calcium. The mechanism for the blood pressure lowering effect of magnesium involves the fact that a lack of magnesium leads to a decrease in the concentration of intracellular potassium and an increase in calcium levels,37 which increases the contractility of blood vessels, as has been shown in animal experiments.38. In Taiwan, hypertension is the ninth leading cause of death for men and the seventh for women.1 The age-adjusted mortality rate for hypertension was 12.27 per 100,000 among men and 12.34 among women in 1995. Fax: (408) 897-3028, The Magnesium Web Site was first uploaded on September 29, 1995. To go directly to a specific category, click on an item in the list below. Most minerals from groundwater, including iron, will be absorbed by water. Information on the levels of calcium and magnesium in each municipality's treated drinking water supply was obtained from the Water Quality Research Center of the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation27 to whom each waterworks is required to submit drinking water quality data including the levels of calcium and magnesium. Excluded from the analysis were 30 aboriginal townships and 9 islets that had different lifestyles and living environments. Books about magnesium! Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for hypertension death by magnesium levels in drinking water, 1990–1994. Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-water: Public health significance. Nonetheless, in the modern-day world, intake of dietary magnesium is often lower than the recommended dietary amount of 6 mg/kg/day.22 For individuals at the borderline of magnesium deficiency, waterborne magnesium can make an important contribution to their total intake. : 10.Ackley S, Barrett-Connor E, Suarez L: 12.Gruchow HW, Sobocinski KA, Barboriak JJ: 15.Witteman JCM, Willett WC, Stampfer MJet al. Some of the conditions magnesium may be useful in treating or preventing are: Articles are listed under one heading only. Magnesium plays a critical role in brain function and mood, and low … How to Treat Magnesium and Iron in Drinking Water. The increased magnesium group had a 27% to 37% lower risk of death from hypertension. The mean calcium concentration in the drinking water of the cases (n = 2336) was 32.9 mg/L (SD = 20.3). This Drinking Water Health Advisory contains Health Advisories as well as aesthetic properties (e.g., taste, odor, color) of manganese in drinking water. since 1992. Transglutaminase 2 as a novel target in chronic kidney disease - Methods, mechanisms and pharmacological inhibition. It makes up 2.5 percent of the Earth’s crust and is commonly found in such minerals as magnesite, The modern processed food diet, low in magnesium and spreading globally, makes this well-researched potential of drinking-water magnesium worth serious consideration, especially in areas where insufficient dietary intake of magnesium is prevalent. 2336 hypertension cases with complete records were collected for the analysis were 30 aboriginal and... Ltd. Ray Tackaberry, Successor Librarian P.O, Clayton DGet al registration system should evaluated. 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